Garnet

Big Photo

Hessonite
Madagascar
22.77 carats
© gemselect.com

Garnet is extensively used as a gem. The name is said to have been derived from the colour of the gem varieties, red garnets having been compared to the flowers and seeds of the pomegranate-tree.

The most common colour of Garnet is red, the most usual tones being tinged with brown, yellow and violet. Green garnet, the colour of which is similar to that of the emerald, though usually more yellowish or brownish, is also cut as a gem, but less frequently. Black garnets also occur and are used in mourning jewellery. Blue is a colour conspicuous by its complete absence in the garnet group.

Amongst all varieties there are numerous specimens of perfect clearness and transparency, sometimes combined with the deepest and darkest shade of colour which are cut as gems.

Garnet is a name given to a group of closely related silicate minerals sharing the same isometric structure. In mineralogy the term garnet has been expanded to include other non-silicate minerals with the same structure, but in gemmological usage, garnet relates specifically to the various mineral species listed below.

Garnet Gemstones by Colour

This table shows the variety of hues this gemstone can be found in. Click on a photo for more information.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Garnet Gemstones by Size

This table shows distribution of Garnet gemstone sizes that are listed on this site. This can give a good indication as to the general availability of this gemstone in different sizes.
Contributed photos
Lightest:0.06 cts
Heaviest:88.74 cts
Average:3.73 cts
Total photos:513
Do you have a larger Garnet? Why not upload a photo?
0.06ct to 8.93ct8.93ct to 17.80ct17.80ct to 26.66ct26.66ct to 35.53ct35.53ct to 44.40ct44.40ct to 53.27ct53.27ct to 62.14ct62.14ct to 71.00ct71.00ct to 79.87ct79.87ct to 88.74ct
General Information
Varieties/Types:
Almandine - An iron-aluminium Garnet.
Almandine-Pyrope - Garnets intermediate between Almandine and Pyrope.
Rhodolite - A rose-red variety of Garnets from the Almandine to pyrope series.
Andradite - A calcium iron garnet.
Demantoid - A green variety of andradite.
Melanite - A black variety of andradite.
Topazolite - A yellow-brown variety of andradite.
Andradite-Grossular - Garnets intermediate between andradite and grossular.
Mali Garnet - Grossular-andradite type garnet from Mali, West Africa.
Grossular - A calcium aluminium garnet.
Hessonite - A golden orange to brown variety of grossular.
Hibschite - A grossular containing hydroxyl ions.
Hydrogrossular - A grossular containing hydroxide (OH).
Transvaal Jade - A compact green massive jade-like variety of grossular.
Tsavorite - An emerald-green variety of grossular.
Pyrope - A magnesium aluminium garnet.
Chrome Pyrope - A violet chrome-bearing variety of pyrope.
Pyrope-Spessartine - Garnets intermediate between pyrope and spessartine
Umbalite - A light pink to purple pyrope, originally from the Umba River, Tanzania.
Spessartine - A manganese aluminium garnet.
Kashmirine - Spessartine from Kashmir.
Mandarin Garnet - A fiery reddish-orange spessartine.
Uvarovite - A calcium chromium garnet.
Chemical Formula
X
 
3
Z
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3

X = Ca, Fe, etc
Z = Al, Cr, etc
Gemdat.org, Management Team (2012)
Photos of natural/un-cut material from mindat.org
Physical Properties of Garnet
Mohs Hardness6.5 to 7.5
Gemdat.org, Management Team (2012)
Specific Gravity3.55 to 4.33
Gemdat.org, Management Team (2012)
TenacityBrittle
Gemdat.org, Management Team (2012)
Cleavage QualityNone
Gemdat.org, Management Team (2012)
FractureConchoidal
Gemdat.org, Management Team (2012)
Optical Properties of Garnet
Refractive Index1.730 to 1.895
Gemdat.org, Management Team (2012)
Optical CharacterIsotropic
Gemdat.org, Management Team (2012)
Dispersion0.022 to 0.057
Gemdat.org, Management Team (2012)
Colour
Colour (General)Colourless, yellow, yellow-green, green, red, pinkish red, pale pink, violet-red, brown, black
Gemdat.org, Management Team (2012)
Causes of ColourIron is responsible for red, yellowish-green and commonly occurirng yellow and brown colours. The colour of emerald-green garnet uvarovite is due to chromium.
Max Bauer, Precious Stones (1968) Dover Publications
TransparencyTransparent,Translucent
Gemdat.org, Management Team (2012)
LustreSubadamantine,Vitreous
Gemdat.org, Management Team (2012)
Crystallography of Garnet
Crystal SystemIsometric
Gemdat.org, Management Team (2012)
HabitTrapezohedral, dodecahedral, massive
Gemdat.org, Management Team (2012)
Further Information
Mineral information:Garnet information at mindat.org
Significant Gem Localities
Afghanistan
 
  • Konar Province (Kunar Province; Konarh Province; Konarha Province; Nuristan)
    • Chapa Dara District
[var: Spessartine] Quinn and Laurs (2004)
Australia
 
  • Northern Territory
    • Central Desert Region
      • Harts Range (Harts Ranges; Hartz Range; Hartz Ranges)
        • Mt Riddock Station
F.L. Sutherland (1999)
Austria
 
  • Tyrol
    • North Tyrol
      • Zillertal
        • Stillupgrund (Stillup valley)
[var: Almandine] Staebler and Pohwat (2008)
        • Zemmgrund
[var: Almandine] Staebler and Pohwat (2008)
[var: Almandine] Staebler and Pohwat (2008)
[var: Almandine] Staebler and Pohwat (2008)
Azerbaijan
 
  • Daşkəsən District (Daskasan; Dashkyasan)
    • Dashkesan
Smith and Smith (1995)
Brazil
 
[var: Almandine] Eeckhout et al. (2004)
Canada
 
  • Nunavut
    • Baffin Island
[var: Almandine] Wilson (2007)
  • Québec
    • Chaudière-Appalaches
      • Les Appalaches RCM
        • Saint-Joseph-de-Coleraine
[var: Andradite] Wilson (2007)
    • Estrie
      • Le Val-Saint-François RCM
        • St-Denis-de-Brompton
[var: Grossular] Wilson (2007)
      • Les Sources RCM
[var: Grossular] Amabili et al. (2004, 2008)
[var: Grossular] Amabili et al. (2004, 2008)
[var: Andradite] Wilson (2007)
China
 
  • Fujian Province
    • Sanming Prefecture
[var: Pyrope]
    • Zhangzhou Prefecture
      • Yunxiao Co.
        • Tongbei
[var: Spessartine] Ottens (2004)
[var: Pyrope]
    • Ding'an Co.
      • Penglai
[var: Pyrope]
  • Jiangsu Province
    • Nanjing Prefecture
[var: Pyrope]
  • Tibet Autonomous Region
    • Nyingtri Prefecture (Linzhi Prefecture)
      • Bomi Co.
        • Yigong
[var: Uvarovite] He et al. (2000)
Czech Republic
 
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Ústí Region
      • Třebenice (Trebnitz)
[var: Pyrope] Zang and Gilg (2008)
India
 
  • Andhra Pradesh
    • Visakhapatnam District
      • Eastern Ghats Belt
Viswanatha (1982)
[var: Almandine] Viswanatha (1982)
  • Rajasthan (Rajputana)
    • Ajmer Division
      • Ajmer District
[var: Almandine] G. Choudhary and J. Panjikar (2009)
      • Bhilwara District
S. Fernandes (1999)
    • Jaipur Division
      • Jhunjhunu District
[var: Almandine] Viswanatha (1982)
[var: Almandine] Viswanatha (1982)
    • Udaipur Division
      • Sirohi District
[var: Almandine] G. Choudhary and J. Panjikar (2009)
[var: Grossular] Viswanatha (1982)
Iran
 
  • Kerman Province
    • Baft County
[var: Andradite] Laurs (2002)
Italy
 
  • Lombardy
    • Sondrio Province
      • Valtellina
[var: Andradite] Zang (2008)
Japan
 
  • Honshu Island
    • Kinki Region
      • Nara Prefecture
        • Yoshino-gun
          • Tenkawa village
[var: Andradite] Hainschwang and Notari (2006)
Kenya
 
  • Coast Province
    • Taita Taveta District
[var: Grossular]
[var: Grossular] Kane et al. (1990)
        • Tsavo National Park
[Grossular var: Tsavorite] Keller (1992)
  • Rift Valley Province
    • Turkana District
      • Lodwar
[var: Pyrope] Barot (1993)
Kyrgyzstan
 
  • Naryn Oblast
[var: Pyrope]
Madagascar
 
  • Antananarivo Province
    • Vakinankaratra Region
      • Betafo District
        • Mahaiza Commune
[var: Spessartine] E.Ya. Kievlenko, Geology of gems, 2003, p. 112
  • Antsiranana Province
    • Diana Region (Northern Region)
      • Ambanja District
        • Maherivaratra Commune
          • Antetezambato (Tetezambato)
[var: Andradite] Danet (2009)
  • Fianarantsoa Province
    • Horombe Region
      • Ihosy District
        • Sakalalina Commune
[var: Almandine] F. Danet (2009)
      • Ranohira District
        • Ilakaka Commune
Hanni (1999)
  • Mahajanga Province (Majunga)
    • Betsiboka Region
      • Tsaratanàna District
Madagascar - extraLapis English No.1, 2001, p. 43
  • Toamasina Province (Tamatave)
    • Alaotra-Mangoro Region
      • Ambatondrazaka District
[var: Almandine] F. Danet (2009)
  • Tuléar Province (Toliara)
    • Androy Region
      • Bekily District
        • Ambahita Commune
          • Color-changing Garnet Mining Area
[var: Pyrope] Henn (1999)
    • Anosy Region (Fort Dauphin Region)
      • Taolañaro District (Fort Dauphin)
        • Ranopiso Commune
[var: Almandine] Schmetzer et al. (2001, 2002)
    • Southwestern Region
      • Ampanihy District
[Grossular var: Tsavorite] Laurs (2003)
Madagascar - extraLapis English No.1, 2001, p. 90
Mali
 
  • Kayes Region
    • Cercle de Bafoulabé
      • Commune Diakon
[var: Andradite] Brightman and Tunzi (1995)
    • Cercle de Nioro du Sahel
      • Commune Sandaré
        • Arrondissement Sandaré
[var: Grossular] Dameron (2008)
Mongolia
 
  • Arhangay Aimag
    • Hangai highland
      • Tariat
[var: Pyrope] Dill et al. (2004, 2006)
Mozambique
 
  • Niassa Province
[Almandine-Pyrope var: Rhodolite] J. Marques (2009)
Myanmar
 
  • Mandalay Region (Mandalay Division)
    • Pyin-Oo-Lwin District
[var: Spessartine] Kyi et al. (2005)
        • Bernardmyo
[var: Almandine] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
        • Chaung-gyi
[var: Almandine] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Almandine] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
        • Kyatpyin Central
[var: Andradite] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
        • Kyauk-Pyat-That
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Spessartine] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
        • Mogok Valley
[var: Almandine] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Almandine] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
        • On-dan
[var: Almandine] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Almandine] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
        • Pein-Pyit (Painpyit; Pyan Pyit)
[var: Grossular] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Almandine] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Almandine] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Almandine] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
    • Yamethin District
[Grossular var: Hessonite] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
  • Sagaing Region (Sagaing Division)
    • Katha District
      • Wuntho Township
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Namibia
 
  • Erongo Region
    • Karibib District
      • Tubussis Farm 22 (Tubussis; Tubusis; Tubessis)
[Andradite var: Demantoid] Laurs (2002)
  • Kunene Region
[var: Spessartine] Palfi (2005)
Nigeria
 
[var: Spessartine] Michelou (2007)
[var: Spessartine] Michelou (2007)
Pakistan
 
  • Gilgit-Baltistan (Northern Areas)
    • Baltistan
      • Skardu District
        • Braldu Valley
          • Hoh Nala
[var: Spessartine] Blauwet (2008)
  • Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (North-West Frontier Province)
    • Swat District (Swat Valley)
[var: Almandine] Jackson (1992)
Russia
 
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia)
      • Daldyn-Alakit kimberlite field
        • Daldyn
[var: Pyrope] P. Lyckberg (2009)
      • Mirny
[var: Pyrope] P. Lyckberg (2009)
[var: Grossular] Evseev (1994)
[var: Grossular] Evseev (1994)
[var: Grossular] Evseev (1994)
  • Far-Eastern Region
    • Primorskiy Kray
      • Kavalerovo Mining District
[var: Grossular] Smith and Smith (1995)
  • Northern Region
    • Karelia Republic
      • Ladoga Region
        • Pitkyaranta District (Pitkäranta District)
          • Sortavala
[var: Almandine] P. Lyckberg (2009)
  • Urals Region
    • Middle Urals
      • Permskaya Oblast'
        • Gornozavodskii area
          • Saranovskaya Village (Sarany)
[var: Grossular] Kolesar (1997)
      • Sverdlovskaya Oblast'
        • Asbest
[var: Grossular] Smith and Smith (1995)
        • Ekaterinburg (Sverdlovsk)
[Andradite var: Demantoid] Zang (2008)
    • Southern Urals
      • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
        • Ufaley District (Ufalei District)
          • Korkodin
[Andradite var: Demantoid] Korchevskaya (2006)
        • Zlatoust
          • Nazyamskie Mts
[var: Grossular] Evseev (1993)
South Africa
 
[Grossular var: Transvaal Jade]
Sri Lanka
 
  • Central Province
[var: Pyrope] Milisenda and Henn (1999)
  • North Central Province
    • Polonnaruwa District
Milisenda and Henn (1999)
  • Sabaragamuwa Province
    • Ratnapura District
Chandrajith et al. (1998)
      • Rakwana
Chandrajith et al. (1998)
      • Ratnapura
[var: Andradite]
  • Uva Province
    • Moneragala District
[Grossular var: Hessonite] G. Zoysa (2009)
[Grossular var: Hessonite] G. Zoysa (2009)
Tanzania
[var: Pyrope-Spessartine]  
  • Arusha Region
    • Dumbawanga District
http://www.ganoksin.com/borisat/nenam/tanzania-mines.htm
    • Ngorongoro district
      • Loliondo
[var: Spessartine] Pardieu (2007)
  • Dodoma Region
    • Mpapwa District (Mpwampwa)
      • Mpapwa
Dirlam et al. (1992)
  • Manyara Region
    • Simanjiro District
      • Lelatema Mts
[var: Grossular] Pardieu (2007)
[var: Grossular] Pardieu (2007)
  • Ruvuma Region
    • Tunduru District
gemexplorer.org
Thailand
 
  • Kanchanaburi Province
    • Bo Phloi District
USA
 
  • Alaska
    • Wrangell-Petersburg Borough
      • Petersburg District
Frazier and Frazier (1990)
      • Wrangell Island
        • Wrangell
[var: Almandine] Crawford et al. (2005)
  • California
    • San Diego Co.
      • Ramona District
        • Ramona
[var: Spessartine] Laurs and Knox (2001)
      • Warner Springs District
        • Chihuahua Valley
[var: Spessartine] mindat.org
    • Siskiyou Co.
      • Klamath Mts
        • Happy Camp
          • Greens Bar placer
Melhase, John (1935c), Some garnet localities of California: Mineralogist: 3(11): 23; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 196.
        • Preston Peak
[var: Grossular] Gems & Minerals (1963): July: 20-22; USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10286810.
  • Idaho
    • Benewah Co.
      • Camas Cove District
[var: Almandine] Ream (2000)
  • Montana
    • Lewis and Clark Co.
      • East Helena
        • Eldorado Bar
[var: Almandine] E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 70
Zambia
 
  • Eastern Province
[var: Pyrope] Johnson et al. (1999)
Copyright © Jolyon & Katya Ralph 1993-2017. Site Map. Locality, gem & photograph data are the copyright of the individuals who submitted them. For more information please contact the . Gemdat.org is an online information resource dedicated to providing free gemmological information to all.