Citrine

Big Photo

Citrine Starbrite Cut
18.24 carats
© johndyergems.com

The name Citrine is derived from its lemon yellow colour.

Citrine is sometimes very pale or almost colourless. Among deeper coloured stones may be seen wine-yellow, honey-yellow, and saffron-yellow specimens, while others have quite a pronounced brown tinge. Stones of a deep brownish-yellow colour are very similar to topaz, and those of a fine golden-yellow are quite equal in beauty to yellow topaz and can scarcely be distinguished on mere inspection from latter stone except by an expert.

Natural citrines are rare. Most commercial citrine is heat-treated amethyst or smoky quartz. Because the color is now caused by finely distributed iron minerals (mostly hematite and goethite), heated amethyst is not a citrine in the strict sense.

Quartz colored by inclusions of any kind is not called a citrine.

Citrine Gemstones by Colour

This table shows the variety of hues this gemstone can be found in. Click on a photo for more information.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Citrine Gemstones by Size

This table shows distribution of Citrine gemstone sizes that are listed on this site. This can give a good indication as to the general availability of this gemstone in different sizes.
Contributed photos
Lightest:0.26 cts
Heaviest:105.9 cts
Average:24.56 cts
Total photos:154
Do you have a larger Citrine? Why not upload a photo?
0.26ct to 10.82ct10.82ct to 21.39ct21.39ct to 31.95ct31.95ct to 42.52ct42.52ct to 53.08ct53.08ct to 63.64ct63.64ct to 74.21ct74.21ct to 84.77ct84.77ct to 95.34ct95.34ct to 105.90ct
General Information
A variety or type of:Quartz
Chemical Formula
SiO
 
2
Michael O’Donoghue, Gems, Sixth Edition (2006)
Photos of natural/un-cut material from mindat.org
Citrine Treatments
Routinely produced by heat-treatment of (smoky) amethyst: reddish tint, may show reddish-brown hematite inclusions (surrounded by crack). Non-dichroic unlike natural - Blue Chart Gem Identification, Herve Nicolas Lazzarelli, 2010, p 7
Citrine Simulants
Large quantities of amethyst, usually of lesser quality, are heated to turn it yellow or orange and sold as "citrine." Because the color is now caused by finely distributed iron minerals (mostly hematite and goethite), heated amethyst is not citrine in the strict sense.
Thin coatings of iron oxides on colourless quartz, as well as inclusions of yellow iron oxides ("limonite"), may simulate citrine.
Physical Properties of Citrine
Mohs Hardness7
Herve Nicolas Lazzarelli, Blue Chart Gem Identification (2010)
Specific Gravity2.65
Ulrich Henn and Claudio C. Milisenda, Gemmological Tables (2004)
TenacityBrittle
Walter Schumann, Gemstones of the world (2001) Very brittle
Cleavage QualityNone
Walter Schumann, Gemstones of the world (2001)
FractureConchoidal
Michael O’Donoghue, Gems, Sixth Edition (2006)
Optical Properties of Citrine
Refractive Index1.544 to 1.553
Herve Nicolas Lazzarelli, Blue Chart Gem Identification (2010)
Optical CharacterUniaxial/+
Ulrich Henn and Claudio C. Milisenda, Gemmological Tables (2004)
Birefringence0.009
Ulrich Henn and Claudio C. Milisenda, Gemmological Tables (2004)
PleochroismNatural: weak; yellow - light yellow. Heat-treated: none
Walter Schumann, Gemstones of the world (2001)
More from other references
Dispersion0.013
Walter Schumann, Gemstones of the world (2001)
ChatoyancyStar 6
Herve Nicolas Lazzarelli, Blue Chart Gem Identification (2010)
Colour
Colour (General)Light yellow to dark yellow, gold-brown
Walter Schumann, Gemstones of the world (2001)
More from other references
Causes of ColourYellow to orange, O2-Fe3+ charge transfer, various Al3+ related color centers.
W. William Hanneman, Pragmatic Spectroscopy For Gemologists (2011)
TransparencyTransparent,Translucent
Ulrich Henn and Claudio C. Milisenda, Gemmological Tables (2004)
LustreVitreous
Gemdat.org, Management Team (2012)
Fluorescence & other light emissions
Fluorescence (General)None
Walter Schumann, Gemstones of the world (2001)
Crystallography of Citrine
Crystal SystemTrigonal
Ulrich Henn and Claudio C. Milisenda, Gemmological Tables (2004)
HabitHexagonal prisms with pyramids
Walter Schumann, Gemstones of the world (2001)
More from other references
Further Information
Mineral information:Citrine information at mindat.org
Significant Gem Localities
Bolivia
 
  • Santa Cruz Department
    • Sandoval Province
      • La Gaiba District
Laurs (2001, 2010)
Brazil
 
  • Minas Gerais
    • Doce valley
      • Conselheiro Pena
        • Ferruginha
Macri et al. (2006)
  • Paraíba
    • Borborema mineral province
      • Junco do Seridó
Kievlenko E.Ya., Geology of gems, 2003, p. 113
Canada
 
  • Ontario
    • Thunder Bay District
      • McTavish Township
Sinkankas (1997)
Madagascar
 
  • Antananarivo Province
    • Analamanga Region
      • Ankazobe Pegmatite Field
Madagascar, extraLapis English No.1, 2001, p. 44
    • Vakinankaratra Region
      • Mandoto District
        • Anjoman-dRamartinina Commune
Danet (2009)
  • Fianarantsoa Province
    • Atsimo-Atsinanana Region
Pezzotta (2001)
Myanmar
 
  • Mandalay Division
    • Pyin-Oo-Lwin District
      • Mogok Township
        • Bernardmyo
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
        • Kyauk-Pyat-That
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Sri Lanka
 
  • Sabaragamuwa Province
    • Ratnapura District
      • Ratnapura
Uruguay
 
  • Artigas Department
Gilg et al. (2003)
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