Corundum

Big Photo

Ruby
Mozambique
3.59 carats
© Palagems

The name "corundum" is derived from the Tamil word "kuruntam" meaning "ruby".

Corundum is called Ruby if red and Padparadscha if pink-orange. All other colours are called Sapphire.

High-quality ruby and sapphire have always been among the most expensive gems and are used in the most prestigious adornments.

Corundum Gemstones by Colour

This table shows the variety of hues this gemstone can be found in. Click on a photo for more information.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Corundum Gemstones by Size

This table shows distribution of Corundum gemstone sizes that are listed on this site. This can give a good indication as to the general availability of this gemstone in different sizes.
Contributed photos
Lightest:0.09 cts
Heaviest:563.35 cts
Average:5.63 cts
Total photos:394
Do you have a larger Corundum? Why not upload a photo?
Significant stones
Eminent Star6,465 cts
Ecce Homo Star Ruby2,890 cts
Black Star of Queensland, Star Sapphire733 cts
0.09ct to 56.42ct56.42ct to 112.74ct112.74ct to 169.07ct169.07ct to 225.39ct225.39ct to 281.72ct281.72ct to 338.05ct338.05ct to 394.37ct394.37ct to 450.70ct450.70ct to 507.02ct507.02ct to 563.35ct
General Information
Varieties/Types:
Ruby - A red gem variety of corundum
Flux-Grown Ruby - A synthetic ruby grown from alumina dissolved in a molten flux.
Geneva Ruby - Earliest synthetic rubies (circa 1885) created in Geneva.
Star Ruby - A chatoyant ruby showing asterism.
Verneuil Ruby - A synthetic ruby created using the flame fusion process.
Padparadscha - A salmon-pink coloured Sapphire.
Star Sapphire - A chatoyant sapphire showing asterism.
Chemical Formula
Al
 
2
O
 
3
Arthur Thomas, Gemstones (2009)
Significant stones
ImageNameWeightCountry of OriginCurrent Owner
Eminent Star6,465.00 ctsIndia
Ecce Homo Star Ruby2,890.00 ctsMozambique
Black Star of Queensland, Star Sapphire733.00 ctsAustraliaSmithsonian Institute
Star of India563.35 ctsSri Lanka
Star of India563.35 ctsSri Lanka
Logan sapphire422.99 ctsSri Lanka
Star of Asia330.00 ctsMyanmar
Pride of Queensland169.00 ctsAustralia
Click here to view all significant Corundum gemstones
Photos of natural/un-cut material from mindat.org
Corundum Treatments
A significant percentage of the corundum gemstones are enhanced. Artificial healing of cracks and cavities and high-temperature thermal processing are used to increase the transparency and to improve the colour (Nassau, 1981). Near surface cracks are healed with wax or with silicate glass, during which the processable stone is immersed into a silicate melt or heated in conjuction with a powder-like filling material such as, borax or glass. At high-temperatures the filling material melts and enters into cracks and cavities (Themelis, 1986).
Physical Properties of Corundum
Mohs Hardness9
Ulrich Henn and Claudio C. Milisenda, Gemmological Tables (2004)
More from other references
Specific Gravity3.90 to 4.05
Ulrich Henn and Claudio C. Milisenda, Gemmological Tables (2004)
More from other references
Cleavage QualityNone
E.Ya.Kievlenko, Geology of gems (2003)
More from other references
FractureUneven,Conchoidal
E.Ya.Kievlenko, Geology of gems (2003)
More from other references
Optical Properties of Corundum
Refractive Index1.758 to 1.780
Ulrich Henn and Claudio C. Milisenda, Gemmological Tables (2004)
More from other references
Optical CharacterUniaxial/-
Ulrich Henn and Claudio C. Milisenda, Gemmological Tables (2004)
More from other references
Birefringence0.007 to 0.010
Ulrich Henn and Claudio C. Milisenda, Gemmological Tables (2004)
More from other references
PleochroismDichroism: blue - violet-blue and greenish-blue; green - yellowish-green; yellow - pale yellow; purple - violet; orange, yellowish-red - deep crimson.
E.Ya.Kievlenko, Geology of gems (2003)
More from other references
Dispersion0.018
Arthur Thomas, Gemstones (2009)
Colour
Colour (General)All colours
Ulrich Henn and Claudio C. Milisenda, Gemmological Tables (2004)
More from other references
Causes of ColourPurple, Fe2+-O-Ti4+ charge transfer coexisting with Cr3+ in octahedral coordination. Blue, Fe2+-O-Ti4+ charge transfer with influence of Fe2+Fe3+ charge transfer. Green, Fe3+ in octahedral coordination coexisting with Fe2+Ti4+ charge transfer, Ti3+ and Cr3+ in octahedral coordination. Yellow, O2-Fe3+ charge transfer; Fe3+ and Ti3+, a variety of unstable color centers of unknown structure; Fe3+ pairs. Orange to orange-brown Cr3+ in octahedral coordination and color centers; with a contribution of Fe3+. Orangy pink ("padparadscha"), Cr3+ in octahedral coordination and color centers, Cr4+ in octahedral coordination due to Cr4+ and Mg2+ substituting for Al3+ in the crystal structure. Red (ruby), Cr3+ in octahedral coordination with minor contributions of V3+ and Fe3+ in octahedral coordination. Pink, Cr3+ in octahedral coordination. Color-change, Cr3+ and/or V3+ in octahedral coordination in a particular range of concentration
W. William Hanneman, Pragmatic Spectroscopy For Gemologists (2011)
TransparencyTransparent,Translucent,Opaque
Ulrich Henn and Claudio C. Milisenda, Gemmological Tables (2004)
More from other references
LustreAdamantine,Vitreous
Arthur Thomas, Gemstones (2009)
Crystallography of Corundum
Crystal SystemTrigonal
Ulrich Henn and Claudio C. Milisenda, Gemmological Tables (2004)
More from other references
HabitTabular, barrel-shaped
Arthur Thomas, Gemstones (2009)
Geological Environment
Where found:Found in granular limestone, gneiss, mica or chlorite schists.
Arthur Thomas, Gemstones (2009)
Spectrographic Data
Calculated Spectra:
Click spectra for more information
Ruby - Locality: Hunza, Pakistan
Ruby - Locality: Winza, Tanzania
Ruby - Locality: Winza, Tanzania
Sapphire - Locality: Unknown
Sapphire - Locality: Afghanistan
Sapphire - Locality: Kenya
Sapphire - Locality: Mozambique
Sapphire - Locality: Tunduru, Tanzania
Sapphire - Locality: Unknown (possibly Australia)
Sapphire - Locality: Unknown
Verneuil Ruby - Locality: Synthetic
Verneuil Ruby - Locality: Synthetic
Inclusions in Corundum
Inclusions: rutile, zircon, apatite, calcite, spinel, etc., healing cracks, liquid and two-phase inclusions, negative crystals, hollow tubes (boehmite tubes), twinning lamellaes - Gemmological Tables, Ulrich Henn and Claudio C. Milisenda, 2004, p 26
Rutile inclusions
Inclusions:Rutile
Inclusions such as these rutile needles in ruby are often strikingly beautiful. Gemoloigsts study inclusions for clues about the origin and nature of gems.

Field of view 3mm
Further Information
Mineral information:Corundum information at mindat.org
Significant Gem Localities
Afghanistan
 
  • Kabol Province (Kabul Province)
    • Surobi District (Sorobi District)
[var: Ruby] Bowersox et al. (2000)
[var: Ruby] Bowersox et al. (2000)
Australia
 
  • New South Wales
    • Arrawatta Co.
      • Sapphire
[var: Sapphire]
    • Gloucester Co.
      • Barrington Tops
[var: Ruby] McClure and Smith (2001)
    • Gough Co.
[var: Sapphire]
[var: Sapphire] Pecover, 1987
    • Murchison Co.
      • Bingara
[var: Sapphire] McClure and Smith (2001)
    • Selwyn Co.
      • Tumbarumba
[var: Ruby] McClure and Smith (2001)
[var: Sapphire] gemexplorer.org
    • Central Highlands Region
[var: Sapphire] Sutherland and Abduriyim (2009)
[var: Sapphire] Sutherland and Abduriyim (2009)
[var: Sapphire] Sutherland and Abduriyim (2009)
Cambodia
 
  • Krong Pailin Municipality (Pailin Municipality)
[var: Ruby] Hughes (1997)
[var: Ruby] mindat.org
[var: Ruby] Hughes (1997)
[var: Ruby] Hughes (1997)
  • Rattanakiri Province (Ratanakiri Province; Rotanokiri Province)
[var: Sapphire] Ngu and Ngoc (1986), Sutherland et al. (1998)
Canada
 
  • Nunavut
    • Baffin Island
      • Kimmirut (Lake Harbour)
[var: Sapphire] Wilson (2007)
  • Ontario
    • Hastings Co.
[var: Sapphire]
    • Peterborough Co.
China
 
  • Fujian Province
    • Sanming Prefecture
[var: Sapphire]
        • Gaiyang
[var: Sapphire] Li (2009)
[var: Sapphire]
    • Ding'an Co.
      • Penglai
  • Jiangsu Province
    • Nanjing Prefecture
[var: Sapphire]
[var: Sapphire] Galibert and Hughes (1995), Li (2009)
  • Shandong Province
    • Weifang Prefecture
      • Changle Co.
        • Wutu
[var: Sapphire] Guo et al. (1992)
  • Yunnan
    • Yuxi Prefecture
      • Yuanjiang Co.
[var: Ruby] Galibert and Hughes (1995)
Colombia
 
  • Cauca Department
    • Mun. de Mercaderes
[var: Ruby] Johnson et al. (2000)
Czech Republic
 
  • Liberec Region
    • Jizerské Mtn (Iser Mtn)
[var: Sapphire]
Denmark
 
  • Greenland
    • Sermersooq
      • Nuuk (Godthåb)
[var: Ruby] Gemexplorer.org
India
 
  • Jammu and Kashmir
    • Pádar
[var: Sapphire] Gemexplorer.org
  • Karnataka
    • Dakshina Kannada District (South Kanara; South Canara)
[var: Ruby] Mihelou (2006)
[var: Ruby] Mihelou (2006)
  • Odisha (Orissa)
[var: Sapphire] McClure et al. (2005)
Kenya
 
[var: Sapphire] Simonet et al. (2004)
  • Taita-Taveta County
[var: Ruby] Mercier A., Debat P. & Saul J.M. (1999): Exotic origin of the ruby deposits of the Mangari area in SE Kenya. Ore Geology Reviews, 14, 83-104.
[var: Ruby]
      • Tsavo West
[var: Ruby] Pardieu and Senoble (2005)
[var: Ruby]
[var: Ruby] Barot et al. (1995)
Kyrgyzstan
 
  • Naryn Oblast
[var: Sapphire]
Laos
 
  • Bokeo Province
    • Huay Xai
[var: Sapphire] Sutherland et al. (2002)
Madagascar
 
  • Antananarivo Province
    • Vakinankaratra Region
      • Antsirabe II District
        • Ambohitsimanova Commune
[var: Ruby] Rakotosamizanany et al. (2009)
[var: Sapphire] Rakotosamizanany et al. (2009)
  • Antsiranana Province
    • Diana Region (Northern Region)
      • Antsiranana II District
[var: Sapphire] Gonthier (1997)
  • Fianarantsoa Province
    • Ihorombe Region
      • Iakora District
        • Ranotsara Nord Commune
[var: Sapphire] Milisenda et al. (2001)
      • Ihosy District
        • Ilakaka Commune
[var: Sapphire] Milisenda et al. (2001)
        • Sahambano Commune
[var: Sapphire] Milisenda et al. (2001)
        • Zazafotsy Commune
[var: Sapphire] Milisenda et al. (2001)
  • Toamasina Province (Tamatave)
    • Alaotra-Mangoro Region
      • Ambatondrazaka District
        • Didy Commune
[var: Ruby] Hanni (2001)
    • Analanjirofo Region
      • Fenoarivo Atsinanana District
        • Saranambana Commune
[var: Ruby] Leuenberger (2001)
[var: Ruby] Pardieu and Senoble (2005)
    • Atsinanana Region
      • Vatomandry District
[var: Ruby] Pardieu and Senoble (2005)
  • Tuléar Province (Toliara)
    • Anosy Region (Fort Dauphin Region)
      • Amboasary Sud District
        • Maromby Commune
[var: Sapphire] Milisenda et al. (2001)
[var: Sapphire] Milisenda et al. (2001)
      • Betroka District
        • Ianabinda Commune
[var: Sapphire] Pardieu and Senoble (2005)
        • Isoanala Commune
[var: Ruby] Rakotosamizanany et al. (2009)
    • Atsimo-Andrefana Region
      • Ampanihy District
        • Ejeda Commune
[var: Ruby] Rakotosamizanany et al. (2009)
        • Gogogogo Commune
Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
        • Vohitany Commune
[var: Ruby] Rakotosamizanany et al. (2009)
[var: Sapphire] Madagascar - extraLapis English No.1, 2001, p. 90
Malawi
 
  • Central Region
    • Ntcheu
[var: Ruby] Emmett (2000)
Mozambique
 
  • Cabo Delgado Province
[var: Ruby] Gemexplorer.org
[var: Ruby] Gemexplorer.org
  • Tete Province
    • Chimessolo
[var: Ruby] Pardieu et al. (2009)
Myanmar
 
  • Kachin State
    • Mohnyin District (Moe Hnyin District)
      • Hpakant Township (Hpakan; Phakant; Phakan)
[var: Ruby] Smith and Bosshart (2001)
  • Mandalay Region
    • Pyin-Oo-Lwin District
[Sapphire var: Star Sapphire]
        • Bernardmyo
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
          • Lay-tha Taung
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Sapphire] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
        • Chaung-gyi
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Sapphire] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
        • Kathé (Kathe)
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
        • Kin (Guard Post)
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
        • Kyatpyin Central
          • Baw-lon-gyi (Big Ball)
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Sapphire] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
        • Kyatpyin North
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
        • Kyauk-Pyat-That
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Kane and Kammerling (1992)
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby]
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
          • Yadanar-kaday-kadar
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
        • Marble Ark
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
          • Pyaung-pyin
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
        • Mogok Valley
          • Dattaw-taung (Dattaw hill)
            • Dattaw-mid
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
          • Ohngaing (Ohn Gaing; Ohn Kai)
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
        • On-dan
[var: Sapphire] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
        • Pein-Pyit (Painpyit; Pyan Pyit)
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
      • Thabeikkyin Township (Tha Pate Kyin Township)
[var: Ruby] Garnier et al. (2006)
    • Yamethin District
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
  • Sagaing Region (Sagaing Division)
    • Katha District
      • Wuntho Township
[var: Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
  • Shan State
    • Kengtung District (Kengtong District)
[var: Sapphire] Hlaing (2008)
    • Loilem District (Loilen District)
[var: Ruby] Yui et al. (2008)
Nepal
[var: Ruby]  
  • Bagmati Zone
    • Dhading District
      • Ganesh Himal (Ganesha)
[var: Ruby] Smith et al. (1997)
[var: Ruby] Smith et al. (1997)
[var: Ruby] Smith et al. (1997)
Nigeria
 
  • Kaduna
[var: Sapphire]
Pakistan
 
  • Azad Kashmir
    • Muzaffarabad district
      • Neelum Valley
[var: Ruby]
  • Gilgit-Baltistan (Northern Areas)
    • Gilgit District
[var: Ruby] Gemexplorer.org
[var: Ruby]
[var: Ruby]
[var: Ruby]
Russia
 
  • Murmansk Oblast
  • Primorsky Krai
    • Roshchino
      • Kedrovaya river
  • Republic of Karelia
    • Northern Karelia
  • Sverdlovsk Oblast
    • Rezh District
E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 62
    • Shilovka River
  • Tyumen Oblast
[var: Ruby] Grygoriev et al. (2000)
[var: Ruby]
  • Urals Region
    • Southern Urals
      • Chelyabinsk Oblast
        • Plast
          • Kochkar' District
[var: Ruby]
Sri Lanka
 
  • Central Province
[var: Ruby] E.G. Zoysa (1999)
  • North Central Province
    • Polonnaruwa District
[var: Ruby] E.G. Zoysa (1999)
  • Sabaragamuwa Province
    • Ratnapura District
[var: Ruby] E.G. Zoysa (1999)
[var: Ruby] Milisenda and Henn (1999)
No reference listed
[var: Ruby] E.G. Zoysa (1999)
Econ Geol (1981) 76:733-738
  • Uva Province
    • Badulla District
      • Badulla
[var: Sapphire] Dissanayake et al. (2000)
    • Moneragala District
[var: Sapphire] Pardieu and Senoble (2005)
[var: Sapphire] Pardieu and Senoble (2005)
[var: Sapphire] Gems and Gemology, Summer 2012
      • Wellawaya
[var: Sapphire] Pardieu and Senoble (2005)
  • Western Province
[var: Sapphire] E.G. Zoysa (1999)
Switzerland
 
  • Ticino (Tessin)
    • Leventina
      • Piumogna Valley
[var: Ruby] Gemexplorer.org
Tajikistan
 
  • Viloyati Mukhtori Gorno-Badakhshan (Viloyati Badakhshoni Kuni)
[var: Ruby] Smith (1998)
      • Khorog Region
        • Shakhdara Range
[var: Ruby]
[var: Ruby]
[var: Ruby] Gemexplorer.org
        • Rangkul
[var: Ruby]
[var: Ruby] E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 50
      • Pyandzh River Valley
[var: Ruby]
Tanzania
 
  • Arusha Region
    • Dumbawanga District
[var: Sapphire] http://www.ganoksin.com/borisat/nenam/tanzania-mines.htm
    • Lake Manyara
[var: Ruby] Dirlam et al. (1992)
    • Longido
      • Muriatata hills
[var: Ruby] Pardieu and Senoble (2005)
[var: Ruby] Pardieu and Senoble (2005)
  • Dodoma Region
    • Mpwapwa District (Mpwampwa)
      • Mpapwa
[var: Ruby] Hanni (2008)
  • Morogoro Region
    • Kilosa District
[var: Ruby] Keller (1992)
    • Mahenge
[var: Ruby] Pardieu and Senoble (2005)
[var: Ruby] Pardieu and Senoble (2005)
[var: Ruby] Dirlam et al. (1992)
  • Ruvuma Region
    • Mbinga District
[var: Sapphire] Pardieu and Senoble (2005)
    • Songea Urban District
[var: Ruby] Pardieu and Senoble (2005)
    • Tunduru District
[var: Ruby] gemexplorer.org
  • Tanga Region
[var: Ruby] Dirlam et al. (1992)
[var: Sapphire] Michelou (2006)
Thailand
 
[var: Ruby]
[var: Sapphire] Hughes (1997)
[var: Sapphire]
    • Bo Phloi District
[var: Sapphire]
[var: Sapphire] Schlussel (1991)
[var: Ruby] E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 44
    • Bo Rai District
[var: Ruby] E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 66
[var: Ruby]
[var: Ruby]
UK
 
  • Scotland
    • Outer Hebrides (Na h-Eileanan Siar)
      • Isle of Lewis and Harris
        • Lewis
[var: Sapphire] E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 48
USA
 
  • Georgia
    • Rabun Co.
      • Pine Mountain
[var: Ruby]
  • Montana
[var: Sapphire] Mychaluk (2001)
      • Orofino District
        • Dry Cottonwood Creek
[var: Sapphire] Mychaluk (2001)
    • Granite Co.
      • Rock Creek District
[var: Ruby] Emmett and Douthit (1993)
[var: Ruby] Allen (1991)
      • Little Belt Mts
        • Yogo District
[var: Sapphire] Garnier et al. (2004)
    • Lewis and Clark Co.
      • East Helena
        • Eldorado Bar
E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 70
      • Helena District (Spring Hill District)
        • Helena area
[var: Sapphire] White (2010)
[var: Sapphire] White (2010)
  • North Carolina
    • Clay Co.
[var: Ruby]
    • Macon Co.
      • Cowee Valley
        • Ellijay District
          • Franklin
[var: Ruby]
Vietnam
 
  • Bin Thuan Province
[var: Sapphire] Nguyen et al. (2007)
  • Đồng Nai Province
[var: Sapphire]
  • Lam Dong Province
[var: Sapphire] Nguyen et al. (2007)
  • Nghe An Province (Nghe Tinh Province)
[var: Ruby] Kammerling et al. (1994)
[var: Ruby]
[var: Ruby] Kammerling et al. (1994)
[var: Ruby]
[var: Ruby] Kammerling et al. (1994)
Zimbabwe
 
  • Midlands
    • Gweru District (Gwelo District)
[var: Sapphire] L.F. Marsh and F. Mugumbate (2009)
[var: Ruby] L.F. Marsh and F. Mugumbate (2009)
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