Brazil has been the world's largest supplier of aquamarine and other gem beryls for almost a century. In 1811 a unique, transparent aquamarine crystal about 7 kg in weight was found near San Mateus in the Teofilo Otoni region in the state of Minas Gerais. The extraction of gem beryl began in the first quarter of the 20th century and continues to the present days. Beryl, topaz, tourmaline, smoky and pink quartz, kunzite and other gemstones are found in granite pegmatites of the Eastern Brazilian crystalline shield.

The Eastern Pegmatite province is the largest and most important pegmatite area.

Brazil is famous for splendid crystals of transparent beryl, many of which have specific names and adorn mineralogical museums of the world. Among them are the unique specimen of zoned heliodor, Quarto Centario, 22 kg; the deep blue aquamarine Marta Rocha, 34,7 kg from Teofilo Otoni; the Esterela de Alve, 19,2 kg from Tres Barras; the blue with a greenish rim aquamarine, Papamel, 110,5 kg from Marambaia. A faceted Brazilian heliodor, weighing 2054 carats, is preserved in the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., United States.

Common inclusions in beryls are gas-liquid inclusions as needle-like channels and veil-like accumulations. Solid inclusions are muscovite, biotite, quartz, apatite, sometimes fluorite, brown tourmaline, etc.

Ref: E.Ya. Kievlenko, Geology of gems, 2003, pp. 112 - 113

Gemstone List

Gem list contains entries from all listed localities in region.

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