Rutile

Big Photo

Sri Lanka
4.77 carats

Rutile is named after Latin "rutilas" - golden red, alluding to its common colour, especially in transmitted light.

Golden-coloured rutile typically occurs in a slender acicular form. The small needles of rutile found in gems cause an optical phenomenon known as asterism. Asterated gems are known as "star" gems (Star sapphire, Star rubies, etc.).

Rutile has high refractive index and strong dispersion, it gives an adamantine lustre and a diamond-like appearance to its crystals.

Rutile crystals frequently form as elbow or cyclic twins.

Rutile Gemstones by Colour

This table shows the variety of hues this gemstone can be found in. Click on a photo for more information.
 
 

Rutile Gemstones by Size

This table shows distribution of Rutile gemstone sizes that are listed on this site. This can give a good indication as to the general availability of this gemstone in different sizes.
Contributed photos
Lightest:0.96 cts
Heaviest:4.77 cts
Average:2.48 cts
Total photos:5
Do you have a larger Rutile? Why not upload a photo?
0.96ct to 1.34ct1.34ct to 1.72ct1.72ct to 2.10ct2.10ct to 2.48ct2.48ct to 2.87ct2.87ct to 3.25ct3.25ct to 3.63ct3.63ct to 4.01ct4.01ct to 4.39ct4.39ct to 4.77ct
General Information
Chemical Formula
TiO
 
2
Michael O’Donoghue, Gems, Sixth Edition (2006)
Photos of natural/un-cut material from mindat.org
Rutile Treatments
Pale yellow, synthetic rutile may be turned an attractive blue color by heating at over 1000°C in a reducing atmosphere. Heating at 1000°C in oxygen reverses this change (Nassau, 1980) - Nassau (1984)
Synthetic Rutile
Synthetic rutile: Colourless, yellowish, Transparent; Hardness 6 - 6.5; RI 2.616 - 2.903; Birefringence 0.287; Uniaxial/+; SG 4.26; Inclusions: occasionally gas bubbles - Gemmological Tables, Ulrich Henn and Claudio C. Milisenda, 2004, p 31
Physical Properties of Rutile
Mohs Hardness6 to 6.5
Herve Nicolas Lazzarelli, Blue Chart Gem Identification (2010)
More from other references
Specific Gravity4.20 to 4.30
Herve Nicolas Lazzarelli, Blue Chart Gem Identification (2010)
More from other references
Cleavage QualityDistinct
Ulrich Henn and Claudio C. Milisenda, Gemmological Tables (2004)
FractureSub-Conchoidal
Arthur Thomas, Gemstones (2009)
Optical Properties of Rutile
Refractive Index2.609 to 2.903
Herve Nicolas Lazzarelli, Blue Chart Gem Identification (2010)
More from other references
Optical CharacterUniaxial/+
Herve Nicolas Lazzarelli, Blue Chart Gem Identification (2010)
More from other references
Birefringence0.287
Herve Nicolas Lazzarelli, Blue Chart Gem Identification (2010) DoublingMore from other references
PleochroismStrong
Arthur Thomas, Gemstones (2009)
DispersionVery high
Herve Nicolas Lazzarelli, Blue Chart Gem Identification (2010)
More from other references
ChatoyancyYes, star 4
Herve Nicolas Lazzarelli, Blue Chart Gem Identification (2010)
Colour
Colour (General)(Dark) yellowish brown, reddish brown, black
Herve Nicolas Lazzarelli, Blue Chart Gem Identification (2010)
More from other references
Causes of ColourBlue (synthetic rutile), Band transition due to the presence of Ti3+
W. William Hanneman, Pragmatic Spectroscopy For Gemologists (2011)
TransparencyTransparent,Translucent,Opaque
Ulrich Henn and Claudio C. Milisenda, Gemmological Tables (2004)
LustreAdamantine,Metallic
Michael O’Donoghue, Gems, Sixth Edition (2006)
Fluorescence & other light emissions
Fluorescence (General)Inert
Herve Nicolas Lazzarelli, Blue Chart Gem Identification (2010)
Crystallography of Rutile
Crystal SystemTetragonal
Herve Nicolas Lazzarelli, Blue Chart Gem Identification (2010)
More from other references
Habitslender prismatic striated lengthways, variably terminated and often geniculate twinned crystals
Michael O’Donoghue, Gems, Sixth Edition (2006)
Geological Environment
Where found:Rutile occurs as a common high-temperature, highpressure accessory mineral in igneous rocks and granite pegmatites and in regionally metamorphosed rocks including crystalline limestones. Rutile needles are common inclusions in a number of gem minerals.
Michael O’Donoghue, Gems, Sixth Edition (2006)
Further Information
Mineral information:Rutile information at mindat.org
Significant Gem Localities
Brazil
 
  • Bahia
Gems, Sixth Edition, Michael O’Donoghue, 2006, p. 445
Kyrgyzstan
 
  • Naryn Oblast
Myanmar
 
  • Mandalay Region
    • Pyin-Oo-Lwin District
        • Kyauk-Pyat-That
          • Thurein-taung
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Russia
 
  • Primorsky Krai
    • Roshchino
      • Kedrovaya river
Sri Lanka
 
  • Sabaragamuwa Province
    • Ratnapura District
      • Ratnapura
Copyright © Jolyon & Katya Ralph 1993-2018. Site Map. Locality, gem & photograph data are the copyright of the individuals who submitted them. For more information please contact the . Gemdat.org is an online information resource dedicated to providing free gemmological information to all.