In the early 1980s, emeralds entered the world market from the North-West Frontier Province. The main emerald-bearing region is Swat Valley. Pakistan emeralds are pale to deep green in colour with rather distinct dichroism from bluish to yellowish tints. They have good transparency and saturated colour. Their sizes are not large, and cut stones do not usually exceed 1 ct. Stones of 2 to 3 carats and good quality are very rare. The emeralds have high RI (1.582 - 1.602) and high density (2.75 - 2.78 g/cm³) due to enrichment in admixtures. Typical inclusions: dolomite, calcite, fuchsite, chromite and talc. Gas-liquid inclusions are common. The genesis of Pakistan emerald deposits is considered as pneumatolitic-hydrothermal or hydrothermal.

Ref: E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 98

Gemstone List

Gem list contains entries from all listed localities in region.

Gemstones from Pakistan by Colour

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Localities in this Region

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